Dr Leila Alieva contributes to report on Russia scenarios

‘Western allies on both sides of the Atlantic were initially cautious about arming Ukraine because of expectations of a rapid Russian victory. When Ukrainian resistance proved far more robust than anticipated, the US and European governments, especially in Central Europe, began to empty their stockpiles to give arms to Kyiv’

Revenge, implosion or reform – three scenarios for Russia after a defeat in Ukraine. Dr Leila Alieva (Russian and East European Studies Affiliate) is a contributor to this report, produced by Friends of Europe in Brussels. It can be accessed here

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